Acute Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in an Area with an Intermediate Disease Burden

Claudia Roya-Pabón, Andrea Restrepo, Olga Morales, Catalina Arango, María Angélica Maya, Marcela Bermúdez, Lucelly López, Carlos Garcés, Mónica Trujillo, Luisa Fernanda Carmona, Margarita Rosa Giraldo, Lázaro A. Vélez, Zulma Vanessa Rueda

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Tuberculosis (TB) in the pediatric population is a major challenge. Our objective was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics, radiological patterns, and treatment outcomes of children and adolescents (from 1 month to 17 years) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by TB. We performed a prospective cohort study of a pediatric population between 1 month and 17 years of age and hospitalized in Medellín, Colombia, with the diagnosis of radiologically confirmed CAP that had ≤ 15 days of symptoms. The mycobacterial culture of induced sputum was used for the bacteriological confirmation; the history of TB contact, a tuberculin skin test, and clinical improvement with treatment were used to identify microbiologically negative TB cases. Among 499 children with CAP, TB was diagnosed in 12 (2.4%), of which 10 had less than 8 days of a cough, 10 had alveolar opacities, 9 were younger than 5 years old, and 2 had close contact with a TB patient. Among the TB cases, 50% (6) had microbiological confirmation, 8 had viral and/or bacterial confirmation, one patient had multidrug-resistant TB, and 10/12 had non-severe pneumonia. In countries with an intermediate TB burden, Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be included in the etiological differential diagnosis (as a cause or coinfection) of both pneumonia and severe CAP in the pediatric population.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)71-80
    Number of pages10
    JournalPediatric Reports
    Volume14
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This study was funded by the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation?Colciencias, currently MinCiencias, grant number: 111551929199, and Universidad de Antioquia. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

    Funding Information:
    Funding: This study was funded by the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation—Colciencias, currently MinCiencias, grant number: 111551929199, and Universidad de Antioquia. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Keywords

    • Acute tuberculosis
    • Adolescents
    • Children
    • Cohort study
    • Community-acquired pneumonia
    • Intrathoracic tuberculosis

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