According to the regulations of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), organic solvents should be limited in pharmaceutical and food products due to their inherent toxicity. For this reason, this short paper proposes different mechanical treatments to extract lycopene without organic solvents to produce an edible sunflower oil (SFO) enriched with lycopene from fresh pink guavas (Psidium guajava L.) (FPGs). The methodology involves the use of SFO and a combination of mechanical treatments: a waring blender (WB), WB+ high-shear mixing (HSM) and WB+ ultrafine friction grinding (UFFG). The solid:solvent (FPG:SFO) ratios used in all the techniques were 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. The results from optical microscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy showed a correlation between the concentration of lycopene in SFO, vegetable tissue diameters and FPG:SFO ratio. The highest lycopene concentration, 18.215 ± 1.834 mg/g FPG, was achieved in WB + UFFG with an FPG:SFO ratio of 1:20. The yield of this treatment was 66% in comparison to the conventional extraction method. The maximal lycopene concentration achieved in this work was significantly higher than the values reported by other authors, using high-pressure homogenization for tomato peel and several solvents such as water, SFO, ethyl lactate and acetone.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of the Colombian Government (MINCIENCIAS) (grant number: 808, 2018; contract number: 80740-126-2019). This project was financed by resources from the Francisco José de Caldas National Fund for the Financing of Science, Technology and Innovation.
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- Green process
- Mechanical treatments
- Sunflower oil