Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel

R. Ballesteros, J. Guillén-Flores, J. D. Martínez

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle in an indexed scientific journalpeer-review

    29 Scopus citations


    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50. vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5. vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0. L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)155-166
    Number of pages12
    StatePublished - Feb 2014

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    Authors acknowledge the Spain Government (Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) and the Castilla-La Mancha Government for the economical support through the Projects REACTEC (ENE2010-20768-C03-01) and COMBALT2 (Ref: POII 10-0173-0731) . Authors also wish to thank the CAI’s Europa program (Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada de Aragón). JDM acknowledges to Fundación Carolina for the fellowship as well as the Enlaza-Mundos Program.


    • Animal-fat biodiesel
    • Carbonyl emission
    • Diesel blend
    • Specific reactivity
    • Tire pyrolysis liquid


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