Carbon gels were prepared by carbonization of organic gels from a resorcinol–formaldehyde mixture in the presence of potassium carbonate and with two different dilution ratios. The organic hydrogels were dried under supercritical and subcritical conditions and by lyophilization. After carbonization, the carbon aerogels, xerogels, and cryogels were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at −196 and 0 °C, respectively, and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine their surface area, porosity, and surface oxygen content. Electrocapacitive properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a two-electrode cell in acidic and non-aqueous aprotic electrolytes. Results obtained showed that the gravimetric capacitance from chronopotentiometry increased linearly for both electrolytes with an increase in the micropore volume accessible to N2 at −196 °C and in the SBET. In both series of carbon gels, the cryogel had the lowest electrical resistance and fastest discharge time from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, indicating that lyophilization may generate a pore texture with lesser tortuosity and greater regularity in comparison with the other drying methods.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was financed by the Junta de Andalucía, Spain. Z.Z.B. acknowledges a predoctoral fellowship from COLCIENCIAS, Colombia.
© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
- Acidic electrolyte
- Carbon gels
- Drying method
- Electrochemical properties
- Non-aqueous electrolyte