This study arises on the opportunities of using flax fibers as reinforcement for polypropylene (PP) matrix composites. For this purpose, untreated flax fiber bundles obtained by a retting process have been used. For improving compatibility between flax fiber bundles and PP matrix, fiber surface treatments such as mateic anhydride, mateic anhydride polypropylene copolymer, and vinyltrimethoxy silane have been carried out. On the other hand, alkali treatment has also been carried out for fiber modification. The effect of surface modification on tensile properties of single fibers and also on fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been analyzed. Finally, both optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used for characterizing flax fiber microstructural features. The current study completes previous results to elucidate the influence of treatments on fiber surface and flax fiber-PP interface.