From E-Waste to High-Value Materials: Sustainable Synthesis of Metal, Metal Oxide, and MOF Nanoparticles from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The exponential growth of electronic waste (e-waste) has raised significant environmental concerns, with projections indicating a surge to 74.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated by 2030. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), constituting approximately 10% of all e-waste, are particularly intriguing due to their high content of valuable metals and rare earth elements. However, the presence of hazardous elements necessitates sustainable recycling strategies. This review explores innovative approaches to sustainable metal nanoparticle synthesis from WPCBs. Efficient metal recovery from WPCBs begins with disassembly and the utilization of advanced equipment for optimal separation. Various pretreatment techniques, including selective leaching and magnetic separation, enhance metal recovery efficiency. Green recovery systems such as biohydrometallurgy offer eco-friendly alternatives, with high selectivity. Converting metal ions into nanoparticles involves concentration and transformation methods like chemical precipitation, electrowinning, and dialysis. These methods are vital for transforming recovered metal ions into valuable nanoparticles, promoting sustainable resource utilization and eco-friendly e-waste recycling. Sustainable green synthesis methods utilizing natural sources, including microorganisms and plants, are discussed, with a focus on their applications in producing well-defined nanoparticles. Nanoparticles derived from WPCBs find valuable applications in drug delivery, microelectronics, antimicrobial materials, environmental remediation, diagnostics, catalysis, agriculture, etc. They contribute to eco-friendly wastewater treatment, photocatalysis, protective coatings, and biomedicine. The important implications of this review lie in its identification of sustainable metal nanoparticle synthesis from WPCBs as a pivotal solution to e-waste environmental concerns, paving the way for eco-friendly recycling practices and the supply of valuable materials for diverse industrial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number69
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • bioleaching
  • e-waste
  • green chemistry
  • nanoparticles
  • photocatalysis
  • recycling WPCBs

Types Minciencias

  • Artículos de investigación con calidad A1 / Q1


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