Gearbox faults severity classification using Poincaré plots of acoustic emission signals

Rubén Medina, René Vinicio Sánchez, Diego Cabrera, Mariela Cerrada, Edgar Estupiñan, Wengang Ao, Rafael E. Vásquez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle in an indexed scientific journalpeer-review


Classification of fault severity in gearboxes using Acoustic Emission (AE) signals is challenging because such signals represent a highly non-linear and possibly chaotic system. Due to the common assumption of linearity, the statistical features extracted from these systems are suboptimal for the classification of fault severity. Hence, this paper uses the Poincaré plot (PP) of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals to extract useful features to classify fault type and severity in gearboxes. For this development, four fault types were applied over different gears and then tested on an experimental condition monitoring bench: broken tooth, pitting, scuffing, and cracks, each with nine severity levels. Then, the feature set was extracted from the conventional 2-D PP, composed of shape-related features and a set of features known as complex correlation measurements (CCM). The fault type and severity classification was performed using four frequency bands. Low and band-pass filtered signals obtained the highest classification accuracy with Random Forest (RF): the fault type was classified with an accuracy of 99.69%, the severity was classified with an accuracy depending on the fault type corresponding to pitting 98.76%, cracks 98.71%, broken tooth 98.96%, and scuffing 98.51%. The PP features set has a low computational cost even for large datasets representing AE signals, which can benefit the practical possibility of the implementation with high classification accuracy for different types of fault and severity levels in a gearbox.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109918
JournalApplied Acoustics
StatePublished - 30 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s)


  • Acoustic emission
  • Fault severity
  • Gearboxes
  • Machine monitoring
  • Random forest

Types Minciencias

  • Artículos de investigación con calidad A1 / Q1


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