Influence of the boron precursor and drying method on surface properties and electrochemical behavior of boron-doped carbon gels

Zulamita Zapata-Benabihe, Carlos Moreno-Castilla, Francisco Carrasco-Marín

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    Two series of B-doped carbon gels were prepared by the polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in water using either boric acid or phenyl boronic acid as dopants. Both organic hydrogels were dried by four methods: supercritical, freeze, microwave oven, and vacuum oven drying. The effects of the boron precursor and drying method on the surface characteristics were studied by N2 and CO2 adsorption at -196 and 0 C, respectively, immersion calorimetry into benzene and water, temperature- programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Electrochemical characterization was carried out in a three-electrode cell, using Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode and a Pt wire as a counter electrode. The surface area obtained from immersion calorimetry into benzene was more realistic than that yielded by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. The hydrophobicity of the samples decreased linearly with a higher oxygen content. In addition, the oxygen content of the B-doped carbon gels increased linearly with a higher B content, and the interfacial or areal capacitance decreased linearly with a larger surface area. The capacitance was increased by B addition because of the pseudocapacitance effects of the higher oxygen content of the samples. The cryogel and vacuum-dried xerogel obtained from the boric acid series, Bc and Bv, respectively, showed the largest gravimetric and volumetric capacitances, around 140 F/g and 95 F/cm3, respectively.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1716-1722
    Number of pages7
    Issue number6
    StatePublished - 18 Feb 2014

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