Kraft lignin as a raw material of activated carbon for supercapacitor electrodes

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    Abstract

    Kraft lignin is obtained from Kraft pulp, and it is mainly used as fuel for heat recovery, resulting in low-value utilization. In this work, a series of activated carbons were prepared from Kraft lignin and analyzed as electrodes of supercapacitors. Chemical activation was carried out with three activating agents (H3PO4, K2CO3, and KOH) at two impregnation ratios of activating agent to lignin of 1:1 and 2:1 and fixed temperature. The activated carbons showed a specific surface area ranging between 458 and 1515 m2 g−1. The electrochemical characterization of the supercapacitors was carried out in an aqueous medium using a two-electrode cell in a symmetrical configuration. The specific capacitance varied between 76 and 236 F g−1, and interfacial capacitance was between 11.1 and 37.9 µF cm−2 at 0.156 A g−1. The highest value of specific capacitance and interfacial capacitance correspond to samples prepared with KOH and K2CO3, respectively, with capacitance retention percentages of 83% and 43%, respectively. Furthermore, the ANOVA results show that only the activating agent factor had a statistical effect on the specific surface area, micropores–mesopores volume ratio, and the specific capacity. These results suggested that KOH is the most appropriate activated agent for lignin due to the high gravimetric and interfacial capacitance values related to the highest specific surface area and porous diameter close to 1 nm. In addition, these samples showed a maximal energy density of 18.47 Wh kg−1 and power density of 49.48 W kg−1, and excellent cyclability performance after 2000 cycles.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)7031-7047
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
    Volume33
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    The authors thank to Laboratorio NAP-XPS (Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de Antioquia), Laboratorio de materiales (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana), and Joyner de Jesus Acosta Camacho from Semillero de Termofluidos y Conversión de la Energía (Grupo de Energía y Termodinámica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana). This research was supported by CIDI-UPB project No 816B-06/A-19.

    Funding Information:
    The authors thank to Laboratorio NAP-XPS (Sede de Investigaci?n Universitaria, Universidad de Antioquia), Laboratorio de materiales (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana), and Joyner de Jesus Acosta Camacho from Semillero de Termofluidos y Conversi?n de la Energ?a (Grupo de Energ?a y Termodin?mica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana). This research was supported by CIDI-UPB project No 816B-06/A-19.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

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