Psychometric Properties of the Diener Satisfaction With Life Scale With Five Response Options Applied to the Colombian Population

Begoña Espejo, Marta Martín-Carbonell, Irene Checa, Yadid Paternina, Martha Fernández-Daza, Juan D. Higuita, Angela Albarracín, Ara Cerquera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle in an indexed scientific journalpeer-review

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Introduction: The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin in 1985, comprises five items with seven response options in terms of agreement–disagreement. Recently, there has been a suggestion to reduce the response options of the SWLS to optimize its applicability in different cultural contexts. Objective: The study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the SWLS with five response options in the Colombian population. Specifically, we studied the dimensionality, invariance by gender and age (among a group of adolescents and emerging adults under 25 years and a group of adults of intermediate age and established adulthood under 59 years), convergent validity (with optimism), and divergent (with pessimism) and concurrent validity with other measures of well-being (flourishing, positive, and negative affects). Methodology: This project was a cross-sectional study using a non-probabilistic sample of the general population. Participants were included if they identified themselves as Colombian and were at least 18 years of age. The final sample comprised 1,255 participants. The average age was 25.62 years (SD = 8.60) ranging from 18 to 67 years of age, and 35.8% of the participants were men. In addition to SWLS, we used the Flourishing Scale (FS), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE). Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.842), composite reliability (0.851), and average variance extracted (0.537) showed very good values. CFA was conducted to test the one-dimensional structure of FS, showing excellent goodness of fit [(Formula presented.) = 15.774, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.985, RMSEA = 0.042, 90% RMSEA CI (0.020, 0.066), and SRMR = 0.016]. The correlations calculated among life satisfaction (SWLS) with flourishing (FS), positive and negative affects (SPANE), optimism, and pessimism (LOT-R) were statistically significant and as expected. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender and age were confirmed. Percentiles were provided for the total score and for age. Conclusions: The SWLS with five response options has adequate psychometric properties in the Colombian population, and the use of this version (with 5 response options) is recommended due to its greater applicability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number767534
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
StatePublished - 13 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Espejo, Martín-Carbonell, Checa, Paternina, Fernández-Daza, Higuita, Albarracín and Cerquera.


  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • measurement invariance
  • psychometric properties
  • response options
  • satisfaction with life scale
  • structural equation modeling
  • well-being assessment

Types Minciencias

  • Artículos de investigación con calidad A1 / Q1


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