Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR-MTB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-MTB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates, the failure rates of standard treatment regimens are high, thus becoming a major public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to anti-tuberculous (anti-TB) drugs is attributed mainly to specific mutations in target genes; however, a proportion of drug-resistant MTB isolates do not have mutations in these genes, which suggests the involvement of other mechanisms, such as the low permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall, enzymatic modification and/or efflux pumps. Clinical drug resistance to anti-TB drugs occurs largely as a result of the selection of resistant mutants caused by poor patient adherence to treatment, inappropriate follow-ups and prescriptions, suboptimal doses of drugs and poor access to health services and treatment. Major advances in molecular biology tools and the availability of the complete genome sequences of MTB have contributed to improve understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to the main anti-TB drugs. Better knowledge of the drug-re-sistance of MTB will contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets to design new drugs, develop new diagnostic tests and/or improve methods currently available for the rapid detection of drug-resistant TB. This article presents an updated review of the mechanisms and molecular basis of drug resistance in MTB.
|Translated title of the contribution
|Drug resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis: Contribution of constituent and acquired mechanisms
|Number of pages
|Revista de Salud Publica
|Published - 1 Jul 2018
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