Background: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after surgery. Most studies regarding sepsis do not differentiate between patients who have had recent surgery and those without. Few data exist regarding the risk factors for poor outcomes in pediatric postsurgical sepsis. Our hypothesis is pediatric postsurgical, and medical patients with severe sepsis have unique risk factors for mortality. Methods: Data were extracted from a secondary analysis of an international point prevalence study of pediatric severe sepsis. Sites included 128 pediatric intensive care units from 26 countries. Pediatric patients with severe sepsis were categorized into those who had recent surgery (postsurgical sepsis) versus those that did not (medical sepsis) before sepsis onset. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for mortality. Results: A total of 556 patients were included: 138 with postsurgical and 418 with medical sepsis. In postsurgical sepsis, older age, admission from the hospital ward, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome at sepsis recognition, and cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities were independent risk factors for death. In medical sepsis, resource-limited region, hospital-acquired infection, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome at sepsis recognition, higher Pediatric Index of Mortality-3 score, and malignancy were independent risk factors for death. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with postsurgical sepsis had different risk factors for mortality compared with medical sepsis. This included a higher mortality risk in postsurgical patients presenting to the intensive care unit from the hospital ward. These data suggest an opportunity to develop and test early warning systems specific to pediatric sepsis in the postsurgical population.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
R.K.T. was supported by National Institute of Health 1K08GM124499-01A1 ; S.L.W. was also supported by National Institute of Health K23GM110496 .
R.K.T. was supported by National Institute of Health 1K08GM124499-01A1; S.L.W. was also supported by National Institute of Health K23GM110496. Authors’ contributions: R.K.T. S.L.W. J.C.F. N.J.T. V.M.N. and M.W.H. conceived the study. R.K.T. S.L.W. J.C.F. L.K. N.J.T. V.M.N. and M.W.H. participated in the design of the study. R.K.T. S.L.W. J.C.F. L.K. N.J.T. V.M.N. J.A.M. M.W.H. participated in data collection. R.K.T. S.L.W. L.K. J.A.M. M.W.H. performed the statistical analyses. R.K.T. S.L.W. J.C.F. N.J.T. V.M.N. J.A.M. and M.W.H. helped to draft the article. All authors read and approved the final article. Drs Thakkar, Weiss, Fitzgerald, Keele, Thomas, Nadkarni, Muszynski, and Hall had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Financial support was provided by the Division of Critical Care and the Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. The authors also appreciate the financial support of the Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital along Department of Surgery and Division of Critical Care Medicine at Nationwide Children's Hospital. The authors thank the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies for help in site recruitment. They are grateful to all local investigators at participating SPROUT sites for their contributions to this study. SPROUT study investigators: North America: Canada: P. Fontela (Montreal Children's Hospital-McGill), M. Tucci, M. Dumistrascu (Sainte Justine Hospital), P. Skippen, G. Krahn (BC Children's Hospital); Puerto Rico: E. Bezares (Hospital Cardiovascular de Puerto Rico y el Caribe), G. Puig, A. Puig-Ramos (San Jorge Children's Hospital), R. Garcia, M. Villar (University Pediatric Hospital); United States: M. Bigham, T. Polanski, S. Latifi, D. Giebner, H. Anthony (Akron Children's Hospital), J. Hume, A. Galster, L. Linnerud (Amplatz Children's Hospital), R. Sanders, G. Hefley (Arkansas Children's Hospital), K. Madden (Boston Children's Hospital), A. Thompson, S. Shein (Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh), S. Gertz (Children's Hospital-Hackensack), Y. Han, T. Williams, A. Hughes-Schalk (Children's Mercy Hospital), H. Chandler (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), A. Orioles, E. Zielinski, A. Doucette (Children's Hospital in Minnesota), A. Orioles, E. Zielinski, A. Doucette (Children's Hospital St. Paul), C. Zebuhr, T. Wilson (Children's Hospital Colorado), C. Dimitriades, J. Ascani, S. Layburn, S. Valley (Children's Hospital New Orleans), B. Markowitz, J. Terry, R. Morzov (Children's Hospital of Los Angeles), A. Mcinnes (Children's Hospital of Monmouth), J. McArthur, K. Woods, K. Murkowski (Children's Hospital of Wisconsin), M. Spaeder, M. Sharron (Children's National Medical Center), D. Wheeler, E. Beckman, E. Frank, K. Howard (Cincinnati Children's Medical Center), C. Carroll (Connecticut Children's), S. Nett, D. Jarvis (Dartmouth Hitchcock), V. Patel (Dayton Children's Hospital), R. Higgerson, L. Christie (Dell Children's Medical Center), K. Typpo, J. Deschenes (Diamond Children's Hospital), A. Kirby (Doernbecher Children's Hospital), T. Uhl, K. Rehder, I. Cheifetz, S. Wrenn (Duke Children's Hospital), K. Kypuros (El Paso Children's Hospital), K. Ackerman (Golisano Children's Hospital), F. Maffei, G. Bloomquist (Janet Weis/Geisinger), N. Rizkalla (Johns Hopkins), D. Kimura, S. Shah, C. Tigges (Le Bonheur Children's Hospital), F. Su, C. Barlow (Lucile Packard Children's Hospital), K. Michelson, K. Wolfe, D. Goodman, L. Campbell, L. Sorce (Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago), K. Bysani, T. Monjure (Medical City Children's-Dallas), M. Evans (Medical University of South Carolina), B. Totapally, M. Chegondi, C. Rodriguez (Miami Children's Hospital), J. Frazier, L. Steele (Nationwide Children's Hospital), S. Viteri, A. Costarino (Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Children's Hospital), N. Thomas, D. Spear (Penn State Hershey Medical Center), E. Hirshberg, J. Lilley (Primary Children's Medical Center), C. Rowan, C. Rider (Riley Hospital for Children), J. Kane (Rush Children's Hospital), J. Zimmerman, C. Greeley (Seattle Children's Hospital), J. Lin, R. Jacobs (St. Louis Children's Hospital), M. Parker, K. Culver (Stony Brook University), L. Loftis, N. Jaimon, M. Goldsworthy (Texas Children's Hospital), J. Fitzgerald, S. Weiss, V. Nadkarni, J. Bush, M. Diliberto (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia), C. Allen, M. Gessouroun (Oklahoma University Medical Center), A. Sapru, T. Lang, M. Alkhouli (University of California San Francisco), S. Kamath, D. Friel, J. Daufeldt (University of Iowa), D. Hsing, C. Carlo, S. Pon (Weill Cornell Medical Center), J. Scimeme, A. Shaheen (Wolfson Children's Hospital), A. Hassinger, H. Qiao (Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo), J. Giuliano, J. Tala (Yale Children's Hospital). South America: Argentina: D. Vinciguerra, A. Fernandez (Hospital Durand); Colombia: R. Carrero (Clínica Infantil Colsubsidio), P. Hoyos (Hospital de San Jose), J. Jaramillo, A. Posada (Hospital General de Medellín), L. Izquiierdo (Hospital Military Central), B.E. Piñeres Olave, J. Donado (Pablo Tobón Uribe); Chile: R. Dalmazzo, S. Rendich (Clínica Las Condes), L. Palma, M. Lapadula (Clínica Santa María), C. Acuna (Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna), P. Cruces (Hospital Padre Hurtado) Europe: Belgium: S. Clement De Clety, M. Dujardin, C. Berghe, S. Renard (St. Luc University Hospital); Czech Republic: J. Zurek (Masaryk University); Germany: H. Steinherr (Klinikum Augsburg); Greece: K. Mougkou (Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital), E. Critselis, K. Mougkou (P. & A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital); Italy: M. Di Nardo, S. Picardo, F. Tortora (Bambino Gesu Area Rossa); E. Rossetti (Bambino Gesu Children's Hospital); T. Fragasso, P. Cogo, R. Netto (Bambino Gesu Pediatrico); Lithuania: A. Dagys, V. Gurskis, R. Kevalas (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences); Netherlands: C. Neeleman, J. Lemson, C. Luijten (Radboud University Medical Center); Poland: K. Wojciech, I. Pagowska-Klimek (Polish Mother Memorial Hospital), M. Szczepanska, J. Karpe (Szyszko Śląskiego University); Portugal: P. Nunes, H. Almeida (Hospital Prof Dr Fernando Fonseca), J. Rios, M. Vieira (Centrol Hospitalar Lisboa Norte); Spain: J. P. Garcia Iniguez, P. Revilla (Children's Hospital Miguel Servet), J. Urbano, J. Lopez-Herce, A. Bustinza (Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón), A. Palacios, S. Hofheinz(Hospital 12 de Octubre), A. Rodriguez-Nunez (Hospital Clínico Universitario), S. Sanagustin, E. Gonzalez (Hospital de la Sant Creu Sant Pau), M. Riaza, R. Piaya (Hospital Universitario Madrid), P. Soler (Hospital Carlos Haya Materno Infantil), E. Esteban (Hospital Sant Joan de Déu), J. Laraudogoitia, C. Monge (Hospital Universitario Donostia), V. Herrera, J. Granados (Hospital Universitario Salamanca), C. Gonzalez (Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca); Turkey: T. Koroglu, E. Ozcelik (Dokuz Eylul University); United Kingdom: P. Baines (Alder Hey Children's Hospital), A. Plunkett (Birmingham Children's Hospital), P. Davis, S. George (Bristol Royal Hospital for Children), S. Tibby, J. Harris (Evelina Children's Hospital), R. Agbeko, R. Lampitt (Great North Children's Hospital–Newcastle), J. Brierley, M. Peters, A. Jones, T. Dominguez, T. Thiruchelvam, (Great Ormond Street), A. Deep, L. Ridley, W. Bowen (King's College Hospital), R. Levin, I. Macleod (Royal Hospital for Sick Children), M. Gray, N. Hemat (St George's Hospital), J. Alexander, S. Ali (University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust), J. Pappachan, J. McCorkell (University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust), P. Fortune, M. MacDonald, P. Hudnott (Royal Manchester Children's Hospital). Asia: China: Q. Suyun (Beijing Children's Hospital); India: S. Singhi, K. Nallasamy (Advanced Pediatrics), R. Lodha (All India Institute); Japan: N. Shime, Y. Tabata (Kyoto Prefectural), O. Saito, T. Ikeyama (Tokyo Metropolitan), T. Kawasaki (Shizuoka Children's Hospital); Malaysia: L. Lum, A. Abidin, S. Kee (University Malaya Medical Center), S. Tang, R. Jalil (Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center); Singapore: Y. Guan, L. Yao (KK Women's and Children's Hospital), K. Lin, J. Ong (National University Hospital). Africa: South Africa: A. Salloo, L. Doedens, L. Mathivha (Chris Hani Baragwanath), G. Reubenson, S. Moaisi (Rahima Moosa), A. Pentz, R. Green (Steve Biko Academic Hospital). Australia: A. Schibler, A. Fernandez (Mater Children's Hospital), S. Erickson (Princess Margaret Hospital), J. McEneiry, D. Long, T. Dorofaeff, M. Coulthard (Royal Children's Hospital Brisbane), J. Millar, C. Delzoppo (Royal Children's Melbourne), G. Williams, M. Morritt (Sydney Children's Hospital), N. Watts, M. Morritt (Children's Hospital Westmead). New Zealand: J. Beca, C. Sherring, T. Bushell (Starship Children's Hospital).
Drs Thakkar, Weiss, Fitzgerald, Keele, Thomas, Nadkarni, Muszynski, and Hall had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Financial support was provided by the Division of Critical Care and the Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine . The authors also appreciate the financial support of the Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital along Department of Surgery and Division of Critical Care Medicine at Nationwide Children's Hospital .
- Medical sepsis
- Pediatric sepsis
- Surgical sepsis