Currently, cellulose nanostructures are among the most promising structures, and extensive work in materials and biotechnology industries is aimed at identifying an efficient process of production. Even when production at the laboratory scale is successful, crucial aspects of increased commercial applications for cellulose nanostructures are linked to large-scale production. Large-scale production requires a balance between the cost of the culture medium and product value. Therefore, in this work, for the optimization and scaling up of bacterial nanocellulose, a culture medium consisting of rotten banana unsuitable for human consumption was used for the first time as an inexpensive feedstock. Initially, the bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) culture medium conditions were optimized, and it was established that a glucose concentration of 26.4 g/L and a V/A ratio of 2.2 cm were the optimal conditions for production reaching a BNC yield of 5 g/L, which was 42.4% higher than the best result initially obtained. Finally, the scale-up process was performed, implementing a regime analysis methodology by comparing the characteristic times of the critical mechanisms involved in BNC production, namely, microbial growth, glucose consumption, BNC production, and glucose diffusion into the BNC membrane, as the first approach for this type of BNC production process. The mechanism underlying the BNC production process is glucose diffusion into the BNC membrane (characteristic time, 675.47 h). Thus, the V/A ratio was selected as the scale-up criterion most suitable for producing BNC under static culture conditions, allowing the production of 16 g of BNC after 12 d of fermentation in a plastic bioreactor, which was 3378% higher than that produced in glass vessels. The results obtained in this study may initiate further improvements in BNC commercial production by exploiting different feedstocks.
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