Biological toxicity risk assessment of two potential neutral carbon diesel fuel substitutes

Silvana Arias, Verónica Estrada, Isabel C. Ortiz, Francisco J. Molina, John R. Agudelo

    Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículo en revista científica indexadarevisión exhaustiva

    3 Citas (Scopus)


    We investigated the biological response of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) extracted from particulate matter (PM) emitted by an automotive diesel engine operating in a representative urban driving condition. The engine was fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and its binary blends by volume with 13% of butanol (Bu13), and with hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) at 13% (HVO13) and 20% (HVO20). Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative DNA damage and ecotoxicity tests were carried out, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) expressed as tbenzo(a)pyrene total toxicity equivalent (BaP-TEQ) were also analyzed. The Hepatocarcinoma epithelial cell line (HepG2) was exposed to SOF for 24 h and analyzed using comet assay, with the inclusion of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (Endo III) to recognize oxidized DNA bases. The WSF was evaluated through acute ecotoxicity tests with the aquatic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex (D. Pulex). Results showed that there was no cytotoxic activity for all tested SOF concentrations. Genotoxic responses by all the SOF samples were at same level, except for the HVO13 which was weaker in the absence of the enzymes. The addition of the FPG and Endo III enzymes resulted in a significant increase in the comet tail, indicating that the DNA damage from SOF for all tested fuel blends involves oxidative damage including a higher level of oxidized purines for ULSD and Bu13 in comparison with HVO blends, but the oxidized pyrimidines for HVO blends were slightly higher compared to Bu13. The WSF did not show acute ecotoxicity for any of the fuels. Unlike other samples, Bu13-derived particles significantly increase the BaP-TEQ. The contribution to the genotoxic activity and oxidative DNA from SOF was not correlated to BaP-TEQ, which means that the biological activity of PM might be affected also by other toxic compounds present in particulate phase.

    Idioma originalInglés
    Número de artículo119677
    PublicaciónEnvironmental Pollution
    EstadoPublicada - 1 sep. 2022

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