Caracterización neuropsicológica en niños entre seis y ocho años con antecedente de muy bajo peso al nacer y prematurez

Martha Luz Russi Navarrete, David Andrés Montoya Arenas

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    Objective: Medical and neonatal ICU efforts have made it possible to preserve the life of patients born prematurely. The main serious disorders associated with very low birth weight are cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness, developmental delay, mental retardation, and epilepsy. Of these children, 50% show intellectual disability, a high incidence of communication or learning disabilities, academic failure, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific neuropsychological deficits, and behavioral issues. This study analyzed the neuropsychological characteristics of 45 children between the ages of six and eight who were premature and had very low weight at birth. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study in children born between 2005 and 2006. Upon parents? informed consent, tests were applied to measure IQ and superior intellectual ability (WISC-IV and ENI). Results: Adequate performance is observed regarding intellectual capacity, where better performance was observed in those with greater gestational age with statistically significant differences in perceptive reasoning. In extremely premature babies, there was below average performance in metalinguistic abilities, long-term visual memory, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility. This reduced performance, along with lower IQ scores, was more notorious in children with a history of sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions: Preterm birth and very low birth weight has a negative effect on neuropsychological functions. Below average neuropsychological performance (metalinguistic abilities, visual memory, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility) could explain neuropsychiatric problems present during growth.
    Idioma originalEspañol
    PublicaciónMedicina U.P.B.
    EstadoPublicada - 2016

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