Comparison of gastric reactance with commonly used perfusion markers in a swine hypovolemic shock model

María M. Godinez-Garcia, Adrian Soto-Mota, Jorge Catrip, Ruben Gaitan, Ma del C. Lespron, Francisco J. Molina, Miguel A. Falcón, Alberto Aranda, Carlos A. Tena, Pedro Zamudio, Ivan Briseño, Rolando Alvarez, Yazmin Guillen

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Background: The gut has been hypothesized to be a protagonist tissue in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) for the past three decades. Gastric reactance (XL) is a potential perfusion marker derived from gastric impedance spectroscopy (GIS), which is an emerging tool through which living tissue can be continuously measured to determine its pathophysiological evolution. This study aimed to compare the performance of XL [positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC)] against commonly used perfusion markers before and during hypovolemic shock in swine subjects. Methods: Prospective, controlled animal trial with two groups, control group (CG) N = 5 and shock (MAP ≤ 48 mmHg) group (SG) N = 16. Comparison time points were defined as T-2 (2 h before shock), T-1 (1 h before shock), T0 (shock), T1 (1 h after shock), and T2 (2 h after shock). Shock severity was assessed through blood gases, systemic and hemodynamic variables, and via histological examination for assessing inflammation-edema and detachment in the gastric mucosa. Macroscopic assessment of the gastric mucosa was defined in five levels (0—normal mucosa, 1—stippling or epithelial hemorrhage, 2—pale mucosa, 3—violet mucosa, and 4—marmoreal mucosa). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of perfusion markers and XL were calculated to identify optimal cutoff values and their individual ability to predict hypovolemic shock. Results: Comparison among the CG and the SG showed statistically significant differences in XL measurements at T-1, T0, T1, and T2, while lactate showed statistically significant differences until T1 and T2. Statistically significant differences were detected in mucosa class (p < 0.001) and in inflammation-edema in the gastric body and the fundus (p = 0.021 and p = 0.043). The performance of the minimum XL value per subject per event (XL_Min) was better (0.81 ≤ AUC ≤ 0.96, 0.93 ≤ PPV ≤ 1.00, 0.45 ≤ NPV ≤ 0.83) than maximum lactate value (Lac_Max) per subject per event (0.29 ≤ AUC ≤ 0.82, 0.82 ≤ PPV ≤ 0.91, 0.24 ≤ NPV ≤ 0.82). Cutoff values for XL_Min show progressive increases at each time point, while cutoff values for Lac_Max increase only at T2. Conclusions: XL proved to be an indirect and consistent marker of inadequate gastric mucosal perfusion, which shows significant and detectable changes before commonly used markers of global perfusion under the hypovolemic shock conditions outlined in this work.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo49
PublicaciónIntensive Care Medicine Experimental
EstadoPublicada - dic. 2022
Publicado de forma externa

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