Introduction: The risk of progression to tuberculosis disease is highest within the first year after M. tuberculosis infection (TBI). We hypothesize that people with newly acquired TBI have a unique cytokine/chemokine profile that could be used as a potential biomarker. Methods: We evaluated socio-demographic variables and 18 cytokines/chemokines in plasma samples from a cohort of people deprived of liberty (PDL) in two Colombian prisons: 47 people diagnosed with pulmonary TB, 24 with new TBI, and 47 non-infected individuals. We performed a multinomial regression to identify the immune parameters that differentiate the groups. Results: The concentration of immune parameters changed over time and was affected by the time of incarceration. The concentration of sCD14, IL-18 and IP-10 differed between individuals with new TBI and short and long times of incarceration. Among people with short incarceration, high concentrations of MIP-3α were associated with a higher risk of a new TBI, and higher concentrations of Eotaxin were associated with a lower risk of a new TBI. Higher concentrations of sCD14 and TNF-α were associated with a higher risk of TB disease, and higher concentrations of IL-18 and MCP-1 were associated with a lower risk of TB disease. Conclusions: There were cytokines/chemokines associated with new TBI and TB disease. However, the concentration of immune mediators varies by the time of incarceration among people with new TBI. Further studies should evaluate the changes of these and other cytokines/chemokines over time to understand the immune mechanisms across the spectrum of TB.
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Copyright © 2023 Herrera, Keynan, Lopez, Marín, Vélez, McLaren and Rueda.