During 2005, 66 carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were collected from seven tertiary-care hospitals participating in a nationwide surveillance network in Colombia. The isolates were multidrug resistant and produced the carbapenemases OXA-23 and OXA-51. Forty-five belonged to four clones while 21 were unique pulsotypes. One clone was present in two hospitals within one city, while another had spread between two hospitals in different cities. Blood, secretions, and abdominal fluids were the most frequent sites of isolation. This is the first description of widespread dissemination of OXA-23 in South America.