Evidencia in vitro de la utilidad de cloranfenicol y rifampicina para el tratamiento de infecciones sistémicas y meningitis causadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados deniños menores de 5 años en Colombia.

Mariluz Hernández, Gloria Isabel Mejía, Hugo Trujillo, Jaime Robledo

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

2 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common pathogen in pediatric infections, has become resistant to penicillin and make these infections difficult to treat. Rifampin and chloramphenicol have been recommended as alternative therapies, since they are less costly and more accessible to communities with limited resources. However, their use may be restricted by the differing levels of resistance found in target populations. The objective was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for chloramphenicol and rifampin in strains of S. pneumoniae. These strains were newly isolated from children under age 5 that had demonstrated systemic infections and meningitis. A subgroup of 107 isolates of S. pneumoniae was selected from 324 strains isolated during a period of 2 years (1994-1996). Among these isolates, 60 were penicillin-resistant and 47 were susceptible; 53 isolates were from children with meningitis. MIC and MBC for chloramphenicol and rifampicin were obtained by standard methods recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). S. pneumoniae ATCC strain 49619 served as the control. An isolate was considered susceptible to chloramphenicol when MIC = 4 microg/ml and resistant when MIC = 8 microg/ml. A strain was considered susceptible to rifampin when MIC = 1 microg/ml and resistant when MIC = 4 microg/ml. MBC was determined by recording the lower concentration of the antibiotic that inhibited 99.9% of the initial inoculum. Chloramphenicol resistance was found in 21% of the 107 isolates. In the group susceptible to penicillin, 11% were resistant to chloramphenicol and in the group resistant to penicillin 28% was resistant to chloramphenicol as well. MBC was found > 4 microg/ml in 28% of the isolates susceptible to penicillin and in 60% of the resistant isolates. No isolates were found resistant to rifampin. However, 2 penicillin resistant isolates showed CBM > 1 microg/ml to rifampin, and one with CIM = 1 microg/ml had a MBC to rifampicin of 16 microg/ml. Meningitis isolates showed higher CIM and CBM than the group of total isolates. These data suggest that chloramphenicol is not recommended for invasive infections caused by S. pneumoniae in Colombia. Rifampin is a more effective therapy in combination with other antibiotics for treatment of this kind of infections. Further studies are necessary to clarify the significance of low levels of MBC to rifampin found in some strains, since this may affect the efficacy of therapies that include this antibiotic.

Título traducido de la contribuciónEffectiveness of the antibiotics chloramphenicol and rifampin in the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced meningitis and systemic infections
Idioma originalEspañol
Páginas (desde-hasta)456-461
Número de páginas6
PublicaciónBiomedica
Volumen23
N.º4
DOI
EstadoPublicada - dic. 2003
Publicado de forma externa

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