Fique fibers were treated using Na(OH) solution at 5 w/v%, slack and under 1 N of tension, at room temperature, for 4 and 24 h respectively. Changes in their structure and composition were monitored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally their mechanical properties were evaluated and analyzed. Results showed that tensile load application during alkali treatment improves their tensile strength and modulus. The most important change in mechanical properties was achieved in fibers treated for 24 h under tension. However, these fibers presented a high standard deviation; due to this treatment causing an important defibrillation. Moreover, fibers treated for 4 hours under tension, enhance their tensile strength around 56 %, while slack treated fibers improve only 38 %. When fibers were treated under tension, cellulose microfibrills were rearranged in the direction of tensile application and the spiral angle decreased, increasing the molecular orientation.