Antibiotic resistance is a significant threat to public health worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have emerged as a powerful tool to identify genetic variants associated with this antibiotic resistance. By analyzing large datasets of bacterial genomes, GWAS can provide valuable insights into the resistance mechanisms and facilitate the discovery of new drug targets. The present study aimed to undertake a systematic review of different GWAS approaches used for detecting genetic variants associated with antibiotic resistance. We comprehensively searched the PubMed and Scopus databases to identify relevant studies published from 2013 to February 2023. A total of 40 studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies explored a wide range of bacterial species, antibiotics, and study designs. Notably, most of the studies were centered around human pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The review seeks to explore the several GWAS approaches utilized to investigate the genetic mechanisms associated with antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it examines the contributions of GWAS approaches in identifying resistance-associated genetic variants through binary and continuous phenotypes. Overall, GWAS holds great potential to enhance our understanding of bacterial resistance and improve strategies to combat infectious diseases.
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