Background: The spread of β-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is a topic of worldwide concern; however, knowledge about colonization by these bacteria in haemodialysis patients is limited. Aim: To analyse the dynamics and factors associated with colonization by β-lactam-resistant GNB in a dialysis centre. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted. Stool samples were collected for each patient to evaluate extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli. Colonization screens were performed at three time-points and then classified as absent, intermittent, or persistent. Molecular typing included enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)–polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Clinical information was obtained from medical records and personal interview. A generalized estimating equations model was performed to determinate factors associated with the colonization. Findings: A total of 210 patients were included. ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant GNB colonization reached 41.2% and 11.5%, respectively. Most patients were intermittent carriers with frequencies of 73.9% and 92.95% for each bacteria group. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-G1, while the most common carbapenemase was KPC. ERIC–PCR and PFGE revealed high genetic diversity among strains and the Escherichia coli clone ST131 was the most important by MLST. Fluoroquinolone use (odds ratio: 3.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–9.44; P [cap] = 0.043) and chronic obstructive lung disease (odds ratio: 3.53; 1.42–8.74; P = 0.006) were associated with ESBL-producing GNB colonization. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high intermittent colonization by diverse clones of β-lactam-resistant GNB in haemodialysis patients. It suggests excessive antibiotic pressure that favours the acquisition of bacteria with diverse genetic profiles and different transmission sources.
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