Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo effects of ITC as an immunomodulator on various immunological mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in pulmonary homogenates. Methods: Two experimental groups consisting of 25 BALB/c mice each were used: (a) PBS-treated mice and (b) ITC-treated mice (1 mg/mouse/day). The animals were treated daily via gavage for 8 weeks. Five mice from each group were sacrificed at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks and cytokine levels assessed in the supernatants of lung macerates using the Bio-Plex system. Five lungs from each experimental group, after 8 weeks of treatment, were used for histopathological analysis. Results: Compared with the control group, ITC-treated mice showed significant changes in the pulmonary levels of 50% of the molecules evaluated: IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α, eotaxin, MIP-1α, MIP-2, and LIF were significantly upregulated. In contrast, IL-1β, IL-15, IL-2, IL-1α, and VEGF were downregulated. Conclusion: Although histopathological examination did not show changes in lung cell infiltrates, ITC exerted a marked immunomodulatory effect at the pulmonary level in healthy BALB/c mice.
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