The influence of palm oil biodiesel content on the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particle- and gas-phase diesel vehicle emissions was investigated. The emissions were collected on-board of a EURO IV diesel truck, fuelled with mixtures of 10% (B10), 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) of palm oil biodiesel, under real driving conditions. Organic extracts of the particulate matter (PM) and gases were characterised for 17 PAH (including EPA priority) and used for the biological assay. Increasing biodiesel content in the fuel mixture results in a decrease in the PM and PAH emission factors, both in the particulate and gas-phase. The majority of the PAH are present in the gas-phase. The mutagenic potencies, in TA98 bacteria, are higher for B20 in both phases, whereas the mutagenicity emission factor, that takes into account the lower emission of PM and PAH, is not significantly different between the fuels. Higher direct mutagenicity (TA98 + S9) is observed in all the tested fuels, indicating the action of carcinogenic compounds other than non-substituted PAH. The gas-phase extracts present higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in lung epithelial cell A549, which may be related to the higher PAH content in the gas-phase. The increase in biodiesel content have a different impact on cytotoxicity, being larger in the gas-phase and lower in the particle-phase. This indicates that pulmonary toxicity may be higher for the gaseous emissions, due to the role of different toxic compounds compared to the PM. The adverse biological effects when biodiesel content increases are not consequent with the reduction of the PAH characterised, indicating that other toxic compounds are more relevant. Further investigations to identify these compounds are required in order to update and focus the efforts regarding emission targets and controls.
|Número de artículo||115034|
|Estado||Publicada - oct. 2020|
Nota bibliográficaPublisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd