HIV and pneumonia infections have both been shown to negatively impact lung function. However, evidence of the role of inflammation on lung dysfunction in HIV and pneumonia co-infected individuals remains limited. We aimed to systematically review the association of inflammatory markers and lung abnormalities in HIV and pneumonia co-infected individuals. This systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews on August 15, 2017 (registration number CRD42017069254) and used 4 databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed Central, Clinical Trials.gov and Google Scholar). All clinical trial, observational, and comparative studies targeting adult (> 18 years old) populations with HIV, pneumonia, or both, that report on immune response (cytokine, chemokine, or biomarker), and lung abnormality as an outcome were eligible. Data selection, risk of bias and extraction were performed independently by 2 blinded reviewers. Due to heterogeneity among the articles, a qualitative synthesis was performed. Our search strategy identified 4454 articles of which, 7 met our inclusion criteria. All of the studies investigated the ability of circulating biomarkers to predict lung damage in HIV. None of the articles included patients with both HIV and pneumonia, nor pneumonia alone. Markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, CRP), innate defense (cathelicidin), monocyte and macrophage activation (sCD14, sCD163 and, IL-2sRα), endothelial dysfunction (ET-1) and general immune health (CD4/CD8 ratio) were associated with lung abnormalities in HIV. This review highlights the lack of available information regarding the impact of inflammatory mediators on lung function in HIV and pneumonia populations, therefore opportunities to prevent lung damage with available anti-inflammatory treatment or to investigate new ones still remain.
Nota bibliográficaPublisher Copyright:
© 2019 Head et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.