Polymersomes are biomimetic cell membrane-like model structures that are self-assembled stepwise from amphiphilic copolymers. These polymeric (nano)carriers have gained the scientific community’s attention due to their biocompatibility, versatility, and higher stability than liposomes. Their tunable properties, such as composition, size, shape, and surface functional groups, extend encapsulation possibilities to either hydrophilic or hydrophobic cargoes (or both) and their site-specific delivery. Besides, polymersomes can disassemble in response to different stimuli, including light, for controlling the “on-demand” release of cargo that may also respond to light as photosensitizers and plasmonic nanostructures. Thus, polymersomes can be spatiotemporally stimulated by light of a wide wavelength range, whose exogenous response may activate light-stimulable moieties, enhance the drug efficacy, decrease side effects, and, thus, be broadly employed in photoinduced therapy. This review describes current light-responsive polymersomes evaluated for anticancer therapy. It includes light-activable moieties’ features and polymersomes’ composition and release behavior, focusing on recent advances and applications in cancer therapy, current trends, and photosensitive polymersomes’ perspectives.
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