Sex differences in houselessness, injection drug use, and mental health conditions among people newly diagnosed with HIV in Manitoba, Canada from 2018 to 2021: a retrospective cohort study

Alexander Sharp, Megan Sorokopud-Jones, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Ken Kasper, Lauren MacKenzie, Laurie Ireland, Kathy Gawlik, Lucelly Lopez, Johanna Marcela Vanegas, Jared Bullard, Carl Boodman, Julianne Sanguins, Mike Payne, Kimberly Templeton, Yoav Keynan, Zulma Vanessa Rueda

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    Resumen

    Background: Manitoba saw the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the province's history in 2021 and is the only Canadian province not meeting any of the previous UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Our goal was to describe sex differences and syndemic conditions within an incident HIV cohort in Manitoba, and the HIV treatment initiation and undetectable viral load outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all people 18 years and older newly diagnosed with HIV in Manitoba, Canada between January 1st, 2018 and December 31st, 2021. Data was collected as follows: before HIV diagnosis: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and/or hepatitis C antibodies. At the time of HIV diagnosis: age, sex, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation. During follow-up: CD4 counts, viral load, HIV treatment, hospitalizations, and number of visits to HIV care. Main exposures evaluated: methamphetamine use, injection drug use, houselessness, and mental health conditions. Outcomes: started antiretroviral treatment and achieved an undetectable viral load. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Findings: There were 404 new HIV diagnoses in Manitoba from 2018 to 2021; 44.8% were female, 55.2% male; 76.% self-identified as Indigenous, 13.4% white/European, 4.7% African/black; 86.6% cis-gender; 60.9% heterosexual, 13.4% gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men, and 1.7% lesbian. Injection drug use was reported by 71.8% and 43.5% of females and males respectively. Methamphetamine was the most frequently injected drug (62.4%). Amongst females, 81.8% experienced at least one of the following: houselessness (43.1%), mental health comorbidities (46.4%), and injection drug use (71.8%). Only 64.9% of all individuals had an undetectable viral load (61.1% females and 67.9% males), 56.5% among people experiencing houselessness, 59% among young people (≤29 years), and 60.1% among people who inject drugs. Interpretation: People newly diagnosed with HIV in Manitoba are disproportionately experiencing houselessness, mental illness, and injection drug use (mostly methamphetamine). This pattern is more pronounced for female individuals. These findings highlight the need for syndemic and gender-specific approaches, simultaneously addressing social and health conditions, to treat HIV. Funding: This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, The Manitoba Medical Service Foundation, The James Farley Memorial Fund and the Canada Research Chairs Program.

    Idioma originalInglés
    Número de artículo100805
    PublicaciónThe Lancet Regional Health - Americas
    Volumen36
    DOI
    EstadoPublicada - ago. 2024

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