The use of fossil fuels is causing a huge environmental impact due to the emission of air pollutants, greenhouse gases, and other ground and water contaminants; also, these fuels are depleting; the world is facing an energy crisis in the years to come if no preventive actions are done. Renewable energies are arising as promising technologies that will complement and even replace conventional fuels shifting the global energy matrix to a cleaner and eco-friendly future. Microalgal biohydrogen is one of those emerging technologies that is showing positive results. This work provides an overview of the key parameters to produce hydrogen from microalgae especially from the genus Chlorella. Current status of chemical and biological hydrogen producing technologies is presented, along with the main metabolic processes for this purpose in microalgae, their characteristic enzymes, several strategies to induce hydrogen production, the key operation parameters and finally providing some remarks about scaling-up and industrial-scale applications.
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