Directed plasma nanosynthesis (DPNS) is a plasma-based surface modification process used to provide high-fidelity bioactive and bioresorbable interfaces for Mg-based foams having an average 500-μm pore size and containing main components of Al, Zn and Ca at bal., 3.3%, 1.11%, and 0.21%, respectively. Correlations of incident particle energies of 400–700 eV and room temperature, normal and off-normal incidence angles of 0° and 60°, respectively, and high-ion fluence conditions are combined to elicit a bioreactive Mg-foam surface. H2 evolution and pH levels of irradiated and non-irradiated Mg-foams were examined and correlated to the DPNS parameters. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and focused ion-beam results have shown that energies of ~ 400–700 eV can control surface topography and composition, which, in turn, controls the foam-corrosion mechanism. Samples are immersed in Dulbecco's modified eagle media, and a synergistic reaction is found in which the irradiated samples enhance the formation of calcium–phosphate (CaP) phases to CaP ratios close to the hydroxylapatite phase that enhances bone-tissue regeneration. These results lead to a surface modification strategy that adjusts the interaction of the material and the environment without using a coating that could affect the geometry and the bulk properties of the porous material.
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