Two-Way Coupled Aero-Structural Optimization of Stable Flying Wings

José D. Hoyos, Camilo Echavarría, Juan P. Alvarado, Gustavo Suárez, Juliana A. Niño, Jorge I. García

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An aero-structural algorithm to optimize a flying wing in cruise conditions for preliminary design is developed using two-way interaction between the structure and aerodynamics. A particle swarm routine is employed to solve the multi-objective optimization, aiming to reduce the weight of the structure and the aerodynamic drag at the design point. Different shapes are evaluated during the optimization process until the algorithm reaches the optimal wing aspect ratio, taper ratio, angle of incidence, twist angle, swept angle, and airfoil shape, where a six-parameters method is employed to allow reflex airfoils. A main isotropic I-beam models the wing structure. An extended vortex lattice model is employed to model the aerodynamics, along with a high-order panel method with fully coupled viscous interaction. The finite element method is used to solve the flying-wing structure under static loads. An algorithm is developed to iterate between the deflection of the wing and its impact on the aerodynamics until convergence is reached. Different constraints are implemented into the objective function to fulfil the structural criteria and the longitudinal static stability. A comparison against a baseline optimization is carried out, achieving higher efficiency and promising results in elliptical lift distribution, and a high static margin, without the use of non-constant twist. The results suggest that combining both reflex airfoils and sweep with washout is the optimal solution to reduce the drag and weight, keeping the longitudinal static stability criteria for tailless aircraft in the lower end of the transonic regime.
Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo346
EstadoPublicada - abr. 2023

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